In 1935, Walt Disney wrote an eight page memo to art teacher Don Graham outlining his ideas for how to train an animator.
|Rico Lebrun works with Eric Larson as he draws a live deer in preparation for Bambi from Eye-Likey|
It's a snapshot of what Disney was thinking about the art of animation during those formative years just before Snow White
and it offers some ideas that might inspire current art teachers. Here are some exerpts:"I have often wondered why, in your life drawing class, you don't have your men look at the model and draw a caricature of the model, rather than an actual sketch. But instruct them to draw the caricature in good form, basing it on the actual model."
"In [drawing the model] lifting, for example - or other actions - we should drive at the fundamentals of the animation, and at the same time, incorporate the caricature. When someone is lifting a heavy weight, what do you feel? Do you feel that something is liable to crack at any minute and drop down? Do you feel that because of the pressure he's got, he's going to blow up, that his face is going to turn purple, that his eyes are going to bulge out of their sockets?"
Disney observed that young animators often dwelled on the individual parts of the body that they were animating instead of the expression of the overall pose. To better understand expressive poses, he suggested setting up a translucent screen with the model behind the screen, seen only by the shadow silhouette cast by a spotlight behind, which was in fact an old parlor game.
He goes on to suggest ideas for teaching about the components of facial expression, staging, music, dialog, and the understanding of what drives the movement of the figure. "The driving force behind the action is the mood, the personality, the attitude of the character - or all three. Therefore the mind is the pilot."
In this video, Disney talks about how his in-studio training program went beyond the static poses that were taught in typical art schools by focusing on the flow of movement, action, and reaction. (link to video
Walt's interest in an in-house studio was initially inspired by animator Art Babbit, who brought his fellow artists to his home to do figure drawing. Here's more about Art Babbit's role in animation education at Disney in the 1930s
Artist Rico Lebrun was brought into the program later in the 1930s, primarily to help with Bambi. Read about his Disney art classes here.Further reading
Online:Full text of Disney's letter to Don Graham
Books:The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation
by Frank Thomas and Ollie JohnstonDrawn to Life: 20 Golden Years of Disney Master Classes: Volume 1: The Walt Stanchfield LecturesThe Animator's Survival Kit by Richard Williams
(great book by Roger Rabbit's
animation supervisor, who learned a lot from Art Babbitt and other classic animators).
The one on the left is a simple breakdown, with front, side, and bottom planes. The one on the right subdivides the planes further. To be precise, some of these "planes" aren't perfect planes in the geometric sense, such as the curving planes on the top of the cranium.
a student of famed Art Students League instructor Frank Reilly, came up with a slightly different plane breakdown for an idealized male head. There are some rounded forms too. The cranium is a ball with the sides sliced off.
Sculpting the plane head brings the plane analysis into the realm of reality. This one is by painter and teacher John Asaro, who has a website called "Planes of the Head
." He has taught head painting using his plane head.
Many academic instructors have used plane heads as models before going to the live human, because it's much easier to accurately judge the values and color notes of each plane, compared to the infinitely variegated tones and curving forms of a real face.
Drawing and painting from plane heads is a central part of Chinese and Russian academic practice, and various companies have resurrected some of these art school models, such as this 21-Inch plaster head
This mini plaster head
is very different from a European or American standard head, and the planes are broken down into a mosaic of small forms. But the ear is treated as a single plane.
People will debate the merits of these commercially available heads, but I've never been completely satisfied with any of them. I think it's a great exercise for any student to come up with their own analysis, and that's what I did when I was in art school. Before there was Sculpey
, I made this the hard way, sculpting a plastilina
original, and then making a two-piece mold and casting it in plaster. Mine was inspired mainly by Loomis and George Bridgman
I have set up my little plane head and painted him in colored light.
Once a student has had practice drawing and painting from idealized plane heads, and even sculpting their own breakdowns, then I think the next best step is to look at real human models and break the planes down in a unique way for that individual model.
This was the method taught in a seminar I took
from Art Center instructor Paul Souza, and here's an exercise I did in that class, scumbling white oil paint over chip board sealed with shellac.
In truth, there is no single ideal plane head, and even an individual model's face can be analyzed in various ways.
Since I only had a half hour, I used the most direct method I know for portraits, starting with big shapes of watercolor laid on wet with a big brush, and then finishing with a few details and textures with water-soluble colored pencils, drybrush watercolor, and a few touches of gouache.
Here's Dennis afterward with his daughter Evie, a student at Hartford. The painting is in a Moleskine water media notebook
, using a Schmincke watercolor set
If you're a high school student interested in studying illustration, I recommend the program at Hartford. It's led by not only Dennis Nolan, but also Bill Thomson
, and Doug Anderson.
Their program is strong in observational drawing and painting, and the seniors create their own children's picture book from start to finish, and they also have the opportunity to study animation. The illustration program is very popular; this year they have the largest sophomore enrollment ever.
-----Dennis Nolan's faculty page at Hartford Art School
Previous post on the Hartford Art School
D. Peters asked: "Ok, random question. A bunch of art teachers are debating whether or not learning how to use a ruler and how to draw things to scale is still a needed skill for today's artists. Some argue that with technology, we no longer have the need to learn how to scale up or down by hand. Others say that even with the technology, there is still a need for artists to learn how to draw and shape to scale by hand. Opinion?"
|Jeanette in my basement studio, which I occupied 1985-1991|
I feel nearly all practical skills are worth learning, even if a computer can do them more efficiently. The more skills you master, the stronger you are as a person and as an artist. Consider, by way of example, the skill of mental arithmetic. If you can accurately add a column of numbers in your head, you will use the skill all the time, even though that function is readily mechanized by calculators.
I suppose teachers of art rightly worry about which skills are more worth teaching than others, given the limited time they have to prepare a group of graduates for the real demands of a job marketplace. Most art teachers I've asked about this question have told me that both
traditional skills (such as perspective) and computer skills (such as Google Sketchup) are worth learning, but the problem is the limited class time available to teach it all. Many digital animation studios want animators who have some training in hand-drawn or stop motion animation because it gives their digital work more grounding.
The path of learning is different when you are teaching yourself. You will teach yourself whatever skills you need to match the demands of a given project. Project-based self-teaching is fueled entirely by your personal obsessions. It may lead you to a rare mastery of a forgotten art, such as ornamental glass art.
In this new Internet economy, the people who succeed are those who—lured by the happy demons of curiosity—learn a suite of skills, including both digital and traditional skills, that makes them different from anyone else, and thus indispensable to society. And because we're human, we might wish to learn skills that have no immediate practical value whatsoever, such as juggling, piano playing, wood engraving, or knitting.
On Thursday I visited the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) in Massachusetts as a guest of the department of Interactive Media and Game Development (IMGD), where I gave a lecture on Worldbuilding.
The IMGD program at WPI is designed to provide students with both programming expertise and art knowledge so that they're well rounded in their approach to interactive design.
One of the professors is Britt Snyder (left, with a Jordu Schell sculpt between us). Britt has worked as an artist in the field of video game development for the past 13 years, with clients like SONY, Blizzard, Liquid Entertainment, Rockstar, THQ, and many others.
He teaches 3D modeling, digital painting, and concept art.
WPI was one of the first to develop a program in game design, and is one of the top-ranked academic programs in the field. Since the department is part of a larger engineering school, there's always a focus on blending art and technology, with an eye on fostering close working relationships between artists and programmers.
Students get to jump right in and participate in hands-on projects and collaborations, creating games, virtual environments, interactive fiction, art installations, collaborative performances. They are encouraged to invent entirely new forms of media.
I was thrilled to be invited by PhD candidate Jia Wang
to try out the virtual reality mo-cap lab, dubbed "Phase Space."
I am wearing a stereoscopic head-mounted display and holding a tracking constellation (basically a souped up Wii controller with very precise tracking points).
The myriad sensors mounted on the outer frame follow the exact 3D movements of my head and hand-held wand, turning me into a St. George with a sword facing off against a dragon, or whatever.
Small fans mounted on the outer frame can generate the effect of wind, so that the player can feel completely immersed in a virtual environment.
On Wednesday I visited New Hampshire Institute of Art for a demo and lecture. The school occupies 12 historic buildings in downtown Manchester, New Hampshire.
NHIA offers BFA programs in Ceramics, Painting, Photography, Interdisciplinary Arts, Arts Education, Graphic Design, and Illustration.
Kristina Carroll teaches courses on Science Fiction/ Fantasy and Worldbuilding. Above are some samples of student work. Kristina says: "Good technique is the foundation of all illustration, and concept is the heart of it. Regardless of style or subject matter, by learning the tried and true methods of the old masters and developing a strong process, students will acquire the tools to develop share their ideas clearly."
NHIA is also hosting a small show of 25 original Dinotopia artworks, including "Dinosaur Parade" (above, frame by Troy Stafford
), "Garden of Hope
," "Dinosaur Boulevard
," "Small Wonder
," "Up High
," and "Waterfall City
." There are also a few preliminary sketches and reference maquettes. The show, organized by the Norman Rockwell Museum, contains a completely different set of artwork from the recent show in Connecticut. The NHIA museum is located at 77 Amherst Street and will be up through March 13.
Lines and Colors announcement of the show, with closeups of Dinosaur Parade
Illustration Master Class was in full swing in Amherst, Massachusetts, when we arrived yesterday.
Here's student Mark Helwig with his dragon reference maquette, made of Super Sculpey. He told me that it's his first time using Sculpey. There are about 100 students from all over the world, some using digital, some traditional, and some combining the two.
The workshop lasts a week, and at this stage the students have already gotten their sketch approved, gathered reference, and transferred the drawings onto the painting surface. Many of the students are professionals themselves, but everyone is trying something new, sharing techniques with each other, and staying up late hours.
IMC is team-taught by a faculty of guests and regulars, so students get plenty of opinions (not always agreeing opinions) about their sketches. I'm here for a day and a half as a guest speaker.
Back row: me, Greg Manchess, Dan Dos Santos, Irene Gallo, Scott Allie , Not Sure (sorry), Donato Giancola. Front Row: Adam Rex, Scott Fischer, Iain McCaig, Rebecca Guay, Julie Bell, and Boris Vallejo (Peter d.S. was away on a phone call).
Here's a sketch of Mo Willems, who did a slide show, explaining the anatomy of a children's picture book.
Peter de Sève did a wonderful presentation about his life in caricature and character design. Later on, Rebecca (left) treated us to a faculty supper at a Chinese restaurant, where Peter and Mo showed us other ways to think about those take-out containers.
We wrapped the workshop in Newburgh, New York yesterday. Three days seemed like the perfect amount of time to really dive into the subject of painting in colored light.
In the painting room, 17 artists and their easels gathered around the model stand. Garin Baker, who is sitting to my right in this picture, was the host of the home/studio venue, along with his wife Clara, who prepared delicious meals and refreshments for all the attendees.
Here are two demos I did to explore the difference between white light and colored light illumination on the same model. The painting on the left is in watercolor 6x8 inches, and the one on the right was in oil, 9x12. Both were about two hours.
Students worked while I did demos, and I spent most of my time going around and trying to help people solve color mixing problems.
After an afternoon session of a semi-nude female model under strongly colored light, we finished the workshop painting the sunset light on the comparatively gray landscape of Storm King mountain on the Hudson River. We all were seeing new colors in the landscape, thanks to the studio practice.
Some students were experienced painters, but others were painting outdoors for the very first time, and they even endured a passing shower before the light broke magnificently.
Here was my 11x14 oil of the view. The workshop was a great learning experience for all involved, me included. Thanks to Garin and each of the students for your incredible efforts to make this a success.
Students: if you like, please post in the comment section any links to the images you did in the class.
And to others interested in future workshops: Garin is interested in expanding the vision of his atelier as a mecca for small, focused art workshop experiences. Let me ask: what sorts of workshop topics would you like to experience? Please let Garin know in the comments or vote in the poll at left.
More photos at Garin's blog
Carriage Art Atelier
Color and Light: A Guide for the Realist Painter
No, I’m not dancing or directing traffic. It just looks like it.
My wife Jeanette did these sketches while I was lecturing at the Art Institute in Phoenix last October. She used a Japanese brush pen and no lay-in, which was very brave.
I’ll be doing another lecture / demo in Los Angeles this coming October, and there is still space in the class if you’d like to join in. This is a new talk that I’ve only given once so far (at Illustration Master Class). It focuses on composition and tonal design.
My approach is unlike most others. We’ll start by looking at what science can tell us about how we actually look at pictures, both still pictures and film. Then we’ll examine how you can design images to communicate what you want in terms of mood and drama. Finally, I’ll show you some approaches to tonal organization, which I think is the most overlooked part of most compositional theory. I’ll share lots of practical tips for artists at all levels.
We’ll have a whole evening together, which gives us plenty of time for discussion and questions, and I’ll also do a technique demo and I’ll bring books. I’ve taught at LAAFA before, and admire the faculty and students there. You might want to sign up early, as space is limited, and all my workshops have sold out.
Color and Light: A Guide for the Realist Painter
Imaginative Realism: How to Paint What Doesn't Exist
Other classes at LAAFA from Scott McCloud, Nathan Fowkes, and Jordu Schell
In addition to LAAFA, which I mentioned yesterday, another dynamic young art school in southern California is Korpus School of Art, founded last July by Rebecca Kimmel. I gave two lectures there last week.
The Korpus School of Art is a small traditional atelier, occupying a single room on the third floor of a beautifully refurbished industrial building in the arts district of downtown LA.
Rebecca admires the Russian and Chinese academic figure artists, and she has a special appreciation for the old master draftsmen, especially Rubens and Pontormo.
Her school is a great place to learn how to draw the figure, either with uninstructed figure sessions or with regular classes, where you can learn the skeleton, the muscles, and the rich tradition of figurative work.
I’ve had the privilege of visiting other small ateliers that have popped up in southern California in recent years to meet the demand for training in traditional skills of drawing and painting.
One is 3Kicks Studios in Pasadena, led by Charles Hu, himself a master of figure drawing and anatomy. 3Kicks hosts a variety of instructors and classes, including Gary Meyer, Glenn Orbik, and Richard Morris.
Another is the Watts Atelier in Encinitas, California (between LA and San Diego). Jeff Watts has a small space but a big reputation for training some of today’s top painters. He has created a friendly but disciplined atmosphere, and he brings a painterly approach to figure work inspired by Fechin, Sorolla, and Frazetta.
Though I haven’t visited them all, and can’t hope to review any of them comprehensively, there are several other excellent small schools in the Los Angeles area, such as Atelier Marchant, Concept Design Academy, Gnomon School of Visual Effects, and Red Engine School.
A student deciding which way to go with their art education, should consider whether you want an accredited degree program (often necessary if you want to teach at a university later) or whether you want to select only the classes you need to build your skills. Most art jobs look at the portfo
Two days ago I received the following letter:“I am an aspiring fantasy artist, and I'm trying to figure out ways to move forward and get started. I would love to produce work for book covers. I am currently in the midst of a great research quest in search of information and ideas on how to get to that point.”
I told her that in my opinion, the best way to move forward as a fantasy artist would be to attend the Illustration Master Class
in June in Massachusetts.
For one intense, unforgettable week, a group of about 100 students stay in the dorms of Amherst College, a quiet, leafy Ivy League campus. They eat meals together in the dining commons and stay up late looking at art books.
But mainly they work. Throughout the week, each student goes through all the steps in the process of making a picture, from preliminary sketches to gathering reference to drawing up the subject and painting the finished piece illustrating one of about five assigned topics. The students choose the topic before the class actually begins, and they arrive with initial thumbnail sketches.
There are both digital and traditional students set up in three big workrooms. Many are already at a professional level
, but some are just beginning, and the atmosphere is extremely supportive and welcoming.
The group faculty offers one-on-one guidance to the students at each stage of the process. The week is punctuated by lectures, one-on-one critiques, and demos. Above are watercolor sketches I did of Dan Dos Santos and Greg Manchess. The core faculty brings their own portable studios and they each work on their own pictures right next to the students. The teachers are all really approachable people, and any of them will answer any question you throw at them.
The 2012 faculty includes the core faculty of Greg Manchess, Dan Dos Santos, Scott Fischer, Boris Vallejo, Julie Bell, Irene Gallo, and organizer Rebecca Guay. This year, Iain McCaig will be there for the week, and Adam Rex, Brom, and I are privileged to participate as visiting lecturers.
At about $2,000, the price is a little expensive, but not bad when you consider that it includes room and board, and when you realize how much you can get out of it. If you can afford it, it’s the best
Last week I visited Columbus College of Art and Design (CCAD) to give a lecture on composition and color.
CCAD is one of the leading art schools for training illustrators, animators, painters, and sculptors. Clockwise from above left: a gallery of student work, character maquettes, Illustration chairman Stewart McKissick with a latex foam bear head, and one of the Pirate Bears made in 3-D teacher Mark Hazelrig’s class.
Mark Hazelrig teaches popular course in sculpting and casting. When we were there, students were molding soaps and designing the packages to fit them. In a back room, they were working on a giant model of a flea.
The campus buildings are scattered across a quiet section of downtown Columbus Ohio, right next to the art museum. A giant “ART” sign spans one road in the campus.
After my lecture, I did a demo portrait of Mr. McKissick. Since it was Halloween, he agreed to let me turn him into a zombie.
On the official website, the school invites you to imagine everything "from superheroes to monsters and jokes to political statements." And that's what I love about the school: the mix of wild fun, high standards, and dedicated professionalism.
CCAD Illustration website
Coffee with CCAD illustration teacher C.F. Payne
My 2009 visit to CCAD
R. Ives Gammell (1893-1981) carried the torch for academic painting in mid-20th century America. He published Twilight of Painting in 1946, an argument for the value of traditional painting skills that he found lacking in the art world* around him.
Gammell makes an interesting point about art teaching:
“A painter’s training does not consist primarily in instruction as to the handling of his materials. Such knowledge is extremely important, of course, but it is not the main thing. The essential purpose of a painter’s training should be to equip him with the means of solving any problem suggested to him by his creative impulse.”
He argues that all painters must begin their inspiration with the visible world, and that “a sound tradition of painting is, perhaps more than anything else, an attitude toward the visible world, and its teaching seeks to make that world more understandable and more accessible to its disciples.”
He describes bad teaching as that which makes the student follow canned formulas for painting, or as he says, “ready-made interpretations of natural appearances and recipes for rendering them.”
Above: Gammell: “The Law,” 1936.
How would Gammell address those higher goals? How, exactly, does the teacher equip the young painter to respond to the creative impulse? What good would such guidance be if the student didn’t already know how to stretch a canvas, and apply paint? Especially in a world where basic practical knowledge had been mostly lost, isn’t it the duty of an art education to have mastery of the mechanics of paint and brushes, perspective, anatomy, and accurate drawing?
As I understand Gammell’s argument, he would agree that it’s the teacher’s duty to help the student through all of the mechanics, which take years of dedicated effort, ideally in a small atelier.
But it’s the rare teacher that is able to equip the student with the higher tools for bringing their dreams into focus, and for manifesting them in a way that is right for that student’s unique sensibilities.
Once the practical foundation is laid, teachers can offer students proven strategies for shaping their dreams into material form. The process of developing sketches, preliminary studies from the model, and so forth, is a time-honored procedure that has served artists with all sorts of visions and styles.
*Note: Gammell’s view of the art world scarcely includes the field of illustration. Although he mentions Howard Pyle in passing, he ignores his contemporaries such as Andrew Loomis, whose Creative Illustration
was published in the same year as Twilight of Painting, and he doesn’t acknowledge the Famous Artist’s Course, which was
Yesterday I visited University of the Arts in Philadelphia for the second time. The first time was in the winter of 2010, right on the eve of the historic snowstorm. I was delighted to return with all new lectures, and to meet a whole new group of students.
The head of the illustration program is illustrator and graphic designer, Mark Tocchet, who created the award-winning digital painting “Lover’s Pass,” above.
Here I am with Mark (and a reference skeleton) from the last visit.
Over the years, the school’s illustration program has been led by legendary instructors, such as Ben Eisenstadt (1906-1996) and Henry C. Pitz (1895-1976). The celebrated graduates have included Richard Amsel, Jerry Pinkney, and the Berenstains, creators of the Berenstain Bears.
The illustration program has been ranked among the top three in the nation by US News and World Report.
In between my lectures on color and composition, I did a twenty-minute portrait of Mark with water-soluble colored pencils, while he and the students watched the projected image on the screen.
Thanks, UArts, and keep up the great work.
University of the Arts, Philadelphia
Mark Tocchet's website
Two days ago, I visited Maryland Institute College of the Arts (MICA) in Baltimore, Maryland to visit the oil painting class of Patrick O'Brien and James Warhola
My old pal James agreed to go under the lights for a portrait demo that lasted an hour and thirty minutes. As the students gathered 'round, I set up my portable pochade easel on a camera tripod.
James took off his glasses and put on an antique beaver top hat. I laid in the basic shapes with a brush on an oil-primed canvas-covered masonite panel, 9x12 inches. I premixed a few of the main colors and blocked them in with long-haired bristle filbert brushes.
With the help of one of the students, Bethany, who loves costumes, we tried to imagine how a high wing collar and a cravat might look, so as to keep to the period flavor.
I'll do a post about the overall school at MICA later. Thanks to illustration department chairman José Villarubia
for your hospitality, and hats off to the students for your attention and great questions, to Patrick for the photos, and to James for posing!About MICAPatrick O'Brien's Maritime Art James Warhola's website Open Box M Pochade Box
Previously: Tone paper portrait of Warhola
The Art Institute of Phoenix
is a degree-granting institution in Arizona that focuses on developing professional skills in the fields of animation, visual effects, game design, fashion design, and culinary arts.
It's part of the Art Institute
association of schools, which has over 40 branches throughout North America. I visited the school more than a year ago, and I've also visited the Art Institute
Inland Empire in San Bernardino, California.Kevin Hedgpeth
is on the faculty of the media arts program. He's showing me paper sculptures of a helmet and a motorcycle made by the students. Kevin has experience in illustration, toy design, character design, and paleoart.
He likened his job as an instructor to giving the students a "Batman's utility belt
," with a variety of skills that they can use in an ever-changing job environment.
After touring the building, meeting faculty, and doing a digital presentation, I did a demo portrait of Kevin.
------Wikipedia on Art Institute PhoenixOfficial website
Previously: Art Institute Inland Empire
Luckily, the art room of the Shanghai American School had a human skeleton and the skull of a Marco Polo sheep. I had 25 minutes left in my presentation, so I thought I'd do a creature design demo.
If I could blend the two skulls together, I could show the students how to create a satyr. I started by lightly drawing the satyr skull with its eye sockets facing forward, a long nose, big cheekbones, and a prognathic mouth.
I explained how you have to think about perspective not only with buildings and cars, but with a symmetrical form like this. The horns, ears, and eyes have to line up along receding perspective lines.
(Above: sketch by Jeanette) Apart from the creature-design challenge, I find the idea of blending two different species to be profoundly exciting and disturbing. It was once the province of mythology and science fiction, but now the real science is at our doorsteps, as the following two TED talks explore.
Massachusetts College of Art and Design is a four year art school located in the heart of Boston, Massachusetts.
The main building, which is called the "tower," has the gloom of a modernist building that wasn't designed with people in mind. But the students have decorated the interior spaces with cheerful paintings of trees and faces that humanize it a bit.
I toured the building with illustration chair Linda Bourke. There are 185 illustration students, making illustration the largest major subject.
Abraham Tena teaches a course on the Human Figure in Illustration, where he has the students diagram the muscles. The school offers a two-hour open drawing session each week, both costumed and nude, which anyone can attend for free.
Andy Reach, like all upper division students, gets his own dedicated workspace. It's OK if they don't keep the space tidy. "We love it when they get messy," Ms. Bourke said.
One of the most popular classes is illustrative mask making, where the students work directly with theater professionals from Boston. Students are encouraged to experiment with unconventional illustration media, such as embroidery, cutout sculpture, animation, and Sculpey. Above is a sculptural illustration by Virginia Kainamisis
The graduating seniors put special effort into preparing their portfolio. On behalf of the students, the school produces and provides them with a set of business cards in the form of illustrated trading cards.
------Massart web site
Yesterday the students were in full swing on their paintings at Illustration Master Class
, the week-long workshop for fantasy art in Amherst, Massachusetts.
In between giving lectures and circulating to give personal feedback, the instructors demonstrated painting techniques. Greg Manchess
painted a head study of a female model in oil, with instructor Scott Fischer
looking on.Donato Giancola
painted a wizard.Iain McCaig
used watercolor for a head study of a bodybuilder model who joined us last evening for a two hour pose. Since "Tarzan" was one of the five assigned topics, he was an inspiring subject.Dan Dos Santos
and I worked side by side in oil from the model, as many of the students joined in with their sketchbooks (photo by Irene Gallo
Dan decided to shift the color range to a cool palette (left). I experimented with interpreting the same pose in an 8x10 inch oil study, and a half-hour watercolor pencil sketch in my sketchbook.
I also did a quick sketch of instructor Brom
as he gave his lecture, with Noah Bradley
looking on.Illustration Master Class
I met with the editors of Dover Publishing a while ago. They publish a lot of classic books on art instruction from days of yore. I told them that most of what I know about drawing and painting comes from studying their books. They asked me for a list of my ten favorite art instruction books with a blurb about why I love each one.
Bridgman's Life Drawing by George Bridgman
Bridgman's legendary figure drawing demonstrations at the Art Students League of New York have inspired generations of artists, from Norman Rockwell to Frank Frazetta. His dynamic, chunky form analysis reminds students of the big shapes and how they interlock with each other, which is easy to overlook when faced with the subtleties of the actual figure.
John Vanderpoel, who studied in France at the Académie Julian, offers a classical approach to figure drawing, noteworthy for its timeless grace. His approach focuses on the important planes of the figure understood in terms of simple light and shade. Male and female models are analyzed in many detailed drawings of parts, such as the head, neck, torso, and limbs. The plates are so good that it would profit a student to systematically copy all of them.
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