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I think we've all seen illustration where the children or babies look like miniature adults? Of course sometimes, like in this medieval painting, that can be a stylistic choice but other times it can just look downright creepy.
I have definitely had times where I have had characters look 10 when they needed to be look 5. Sometimes it can be hard to figure out why a character looks the wrong age and even harder to fix it. Here are some pointers and things to keep in mind when changing the age of your child characters.
First of all, you need to consider the size of the face. Look at photos of babies or, even better, draw babies from life (you'd better be quick - they are squirmy little suckers!) But you will soon notice, that compared to adults, their chins and noses are quite small.
So, one of the easiest things you can do is move the face lower on the head. Even a smiley face can look younger when you shift the eyes down and make the chin and mouth smaller.
The smaller you make the chin, the pudgier the cheeks will appear. If you look at the profile of a real baby sometimes you can't see their mouth or chin because their cheeks are so round.
Another thing you can do to make your characters younger is change the size of the head compared to the body. A real adult is approximately 7 1/2 heads tall, a real 5 year old is about 6 heads tall and a real infant is about 4 heads tall, but depending on your drawing style those proportions might not look right. When I draw kindergartners they are usually about 4 heads tall, the same proportions as a real life infant!
In the above diagram, all the figures have the same head placed on the same body. The body is just smaller each time (I also made the neck a little shorter each time.) By the 3rd figure, the body was getting too narrow, so I widened it a bit. But you can see by just changing the head/body proportions you can go a long way to changing the age of a character.
When you pair that with the facial changes discussed above, you can really alter the age of characters. I hope this helps.
I haven't done a tutorial in a long time so I thought I'd share some of the newer Photoshop tricks and techniques that I've learned lately. Here's a piece that I did for the Illustration for Kids February promotional mailer.
For this image, I knew I wanted to make two love birds so I downloaded a bunch of reference photos of love birds and created a rough pencil drawing.
It was pretty messy, so I redrew it on tracing paper.
I scanned the pencil drawing of the birds into Photoshop and cut and pasted it into a new photoshop document, making sure this new file was the size of the final artwork and in RGB color mode. I made sure I included all the necessary bleeds, so there weren't any surprises later.
Then I created the heart shape in Adobe Illustrator and cut and pasted (paste as pixels) into the Photoshop file. Then I erased the parts of the heart that should be hidden by the birds. I also sketched in the rest of the leaves on the end of the branch.
For this illustration, I wanted everything in the image outlined in a grainy pencil line. To do that I could have created a new layer in Photoshop and traced the image using the brush tool, but I haven't found a pencil brush in Photoshop that I'm completely happy with. So I decided to print the image out on drawing paper and trace it with a soft graphite pencil. But before I did that, I made some modifications to the image.
I selected the layer with the birds and clicked on Image->Adjustment->Levels. I then adjusted the level sliders in order to make the whites whiter and the pencil lines darker.
Next, I wanted to make the whole image a pale blue color, sort of like a non-photo blue pencil. To do this I made sure I was on the topmost layer of the file and I created a new "Hue/Saturation" adjustment layer. In the Adjustments window I checked the "Colorize" check box and moved the hue slider to a cyan blue color and increased the Saturation and Lightness until I was happy with the results.
Next I stuck a sheet of Strathmore drawing paper in my inkjet printer and printed the image. I then traced over it with at 4B pencil.
Then I scanned it back into Photoshop, adjusting the Levels as needed to make the whites white and the darks dark. It wasn't bad, but I had a few places where I didn't follow the lines exactly so I had some light blue lines showing through.
In order to get rid of these blue lines I went the the "Channels" window. By default Photoshop makes all three color channels visible (red, green and blue) By clicking on the little eyeballs next to each channel I could turn each one on and off. I could see that the blue lines show up much more on the red channel but not so much on the green and blue channels. I took advantage of that to get rid of those pesky blue lines.
To do so, I clicked on the blue channel while holding down the CTRL key. This selected everything in the blue channel, actually this selected all the white areas in the blue channel. By clicking on Select->Inverse I was able to select all the dark parts. Then I created a new layer in my file, made sure my foreground color was black and press ALT-Backspace to fill the selection. Tada! now I have a new layer that is just my pencils lines an nothing else.
Phew! I think this is a good place to stop for now. Next time I'll go over how I colored the artwork.
Because everyone and their brother makes a New Year's resolution to read more (yours truly included), here's something to help you out: a bookmark tutorial.
You'll need cardboard (I used a leftover mailer), paint, a paintbrush, a pen and scissors.
Trace the template onto your cardboard (full size = about 1 3/4 by 4 inches). Cut out, then carefully make a slit for both arms, slightly rounding out the hands once free. After you've cut out the figure, fill in features with a pen and add accents with paint. Let dry.
To use, place arms over the page you want to mark, slipping the body a few pages behind. Happy Reading!
I am in a lull.
A quiet spot.
No deadlines. Yet. Oh, they are coming, just as soon as contracts get signed and I could start acting like I have a deadline. But I know the deadlines are fake and can’t quite commit to them.
So, I am in a lull.
What am I doing?
Build Platform. I am doing the behind the scenes work on my blog, and enjoying the luxury of reading other blogs and commenting on them. It’s always good to participate in the online community of writers, but deadlines mean it is more restricted. So–point me to one of your best blog posts in the last 30 days and I’ll read it!
Read or study tutorials. On the topic of Facebook, I’ve been fascinated by THE LIKE ECONOMY: How Businesses Make Money with Facebook by Brian Carter. Did you know that there’s such a thing as the EdgeRank Algorithm? When you have a Fan Page, only about 17% of your fans see your posts because of this Algorithm. Basically, Facebook decides how to prioritize what a person sees on FB by using a complicated math formula that takes into account the type of post (text, photo, video), the frequency of interactions with that page or person before (you see your BFF’s posts on top always, but others drop off because you don’t care about them as much) and how long it’s been since you interacted with them on Facebook. See more from Brian Carter about EdgeRanks here. After reading through his book, I am thinking and evaluating where to put my efforts for the next year.
Plan Ahead. I am trying to read the crystal ball and decide where to put efforts right now. There are always blog posts to write, new manuscripts to write. What should I be doing TODAY? By anticipating deadlines, I can work now to get blog posts written, formatted and scheduled for publishing. So often, planning events, school visits, etc. mean lots of emailing, calling, reading material and making decisions, etc.–trying to take care of the details of future events.
Try something new. It’s also important for me to try something new and fresh and different during this time period. I want to visit the local art center, try some online advertising, visit a friend who just needs a warm body to listen.
Bug those involved with the forthcoming projects with endless emails demanding attention.. Work on my work and Be Patient. Work on projects that I like, whether they have commercial possibilities or not. And check my email every other minute for emails about those forthcoming projects. And wait patiently for the forthcoming projects to mature.
What happens when four illustrators share a passion for their work and sharing what they know with others? Awesome Horse Studios is Marc Scheff, Cynthia Sheppard, Noah Bradley, and Aaron Miller. They do a weekly Livestream on Saturdays at 2pm EST. Each episode consists of 1-2 critiques of art submitted from the audience, and a demonstration.
I do compositional lectures a lot in my classes, as well as at the occasional convention. I’ve been asked to post them, so here’s part one: The Schweizer Guide to Spotting Tangents!
Comic art is, as a general rule, a line-based medium. I know, I know, there are plenty of artists whose work is painted, or who depict their subject in ink using solely light and shadow. But these folks are unquestioningly in the minority, as the history of printing technology originally dictated the use of line to depict form in the early days of comics. This became a stylistic expectation, and it’s an expectation that I enthusiastically embrace, as have many others. But using line to draw the world invites chances for that cardinal sin of composition: the tangent.
A tangent is when two or more lines interact in a way that insinuates a relationship between them that the artist did not intend.
It can create confusion on the part of the audience as to what it is that they’re looking at. It can cause the spatial depth that one attempts to cultivate through the use of planes to become flattened. Most of all, it creates a decidedly unwelcome aesthetic response: tangents are just plain ugly.
There are a lot of different types of tangents, as least according to the way I define them. In order to make it easier on my students when giving critiques, I’ve categorized them and named them. This may have been done before, but I’ve not encountered it. My hope is that, by making this “spot-the-enemy” guide, fewer artists will fall into the tangent trap by knowing what to look for.
1. The Long Line
The long line is when a line from one object runs directly into the line of another This is the tangent that everybody knows. The one that’s easiest to spot, easiest to avoid. For a lot of folks, this is the only thing meant when one refers to a “tangent.”
Even in the work of the very best comic artists, a vigilant eye can find the occasional tangent. Even when a cartoonist is constantly on the lookout, a tangent can slip through. But, as each of strive to better ourselves and the quality of our work and our medium,
2. The Parallel
The parallel tangent is when the containing lines of two objects run alongside each other. This causes one of two negative outcomes. Either one object becomes “lost,” as the other overpowers it (figure 1), or one object feels strangely contained by another (figure 2). This can be avoided by ensuring that any object that COULD run alongside another is angled at least 45 degrees from the first. The next two are REALLY tough to spot, and most artists have fallen victim to them before.
3. The Corner
The corner tangent is when two lines in an object meet in a way intended by the artist, but another (accidental) line runs directly into the place where they meet.
So the last blog post had the body split up the Delsarte way. Head, heart, & body (or, as a commenter before had mentioned, mental, moral, & vital.) Head, torso, limbs--each with three more splits of the same. And, in those sections, there are even more divisions!
The eyes, for example, are split: head in pupil, iris is heart, and white is body.
(There are also divisions for the nose, mouth, around the eyes, etc...it's a crash course so we can't get in to all of that. But you can always read the google book.)
Hands (the head part of the body section) also have three parts: palm = body, back = heart, side = head.
So, it makes sense why holding the back of your hand to your forehead = romantic faint (heart to head) vs. palm of hand to head (more logical--do you have a fever?)
The power & movement behind the head/heart/body divisions also had those three parts. The more powerful and convex is body, the least powerful, more head = concave, and the happy middle is the heart.
Delsarte took all these movements & pieces and created exercises and gestures that symbolized the characters' emotions & desires.
In the video embedded above, Roger Hargreaves‘ son, Adam Hargreaves, shows you how to draw Mr. Tickle, Mr. Grumpy, Mr. Funny, Little Miss Sunshin, Mr. Bump and Little Miss Naughty.
Six-year-old Adam inspired his father to create the Mr. Men series when he asked: “What does a tickle look like?” After Roger’s passing in 1988, Adam took over and continued his father’s work. What character is your favorite?
I like creating my own texture brushes from all sorts of things. This tutorial will show you how to create texture brushes from your own photos.
Texture hunting makes for a fun afternoon. If you have little kids, it can be a fun family project. With digital camera in hand, and start looking for interesting patterns and textures. Rocks, trees, carpets, clouds are just a few things that can make neat texture brushes.
Once you have a some photos,upload them and open in Photoshop. This is a photo I took on vacation of a rock outcropping in Central Park...
This photo was already fairly monochromatic but that's not always the case, so the first thing I like to do is desaturate the image (Images->Adjustments->Desaturate). Then I create a levels adjustment layer. I want to boost the contrast in my image to make the texture more noticeable in the final brush. Altering the levels isn't mandatory, you can leave more gray tones in your image, it will just mean that the textures will be more subtle. Experiment and see what works for you.
Next I use the round marquee tool to select a circle out of the middle of my photo. I then click Select->Modify->Feather and feather the edges of my selection about 10 or 15 pixels.
I then copy and paste my selection to a new file. So I have something like this...
Now I can create a new brush by clicking Edit->Define Brush Preset. This is what it looks like when I try and paint with it.
It's okay but I think modifying the brushes characteristics will make it a lot better. So I open the Brushes Palette and make a few modifications. First I increase the spacing. Right now some of the texture is getting lost in the overlay of the individual brush strokes. By increasing the spacing a little the texture will show through better.
0 Comments on Photoshop - Using Photos to Create Texture Brushes as of 1/1/1900
I'm giving a presentation next month with my friend Carlyn Beccia at the New England SCBWI conference. I get to speak about Photoshop painting techniques. And I thought this would be a perfect time for me to really look at some of the features of the Photoshop brush tool.
When you click on the brush tool you have an option to set the flow and opacity of your brush. This is one of those things that I found very confusing in Photoshop. What the heck is the difference between Flow and Opacity? They both have to do with the transparency of the brush strokes, but depending on the brush you are using they can seem to do pretty much the same thing. But there are some difference between the two.
According to the Photoshop help file, flow sets the rate at which color is applied as you move the pointer over an area, where as opacity sets the transparency of color you apply. Umm, I don't know about you, but that really didn't help me a whole lot.
So let's take a closer look at each options. Let's select the hard round default brush. If we draw with this brush it looks like a think solid line but when we open the brush palette and increase the spacing we notice that this brush is lots of circles being laid down really close to one another, if you lay them down close enough together they look like one continuous line.
So for now let's leave the spacing kind of wide so the individual circles are touching slightly, somewhere around 70%. Now if I set the opacity to 100% and the flow to 100% and draw a line with this brush I get a sort of rippled solid blue line. No surprise there. If I leave the flow at 100% but reduce the opacity to 50%, I get the exact same ripply line only 50% lighter. But if I reverse it and leave the opacity at 100% and reduce the flow to 50% I get something a little different. Now, each little dab of the brush is reduced to 50% but where those little dabs overlap the paint coverage is actually darker than 50%.
Okay so that's not too confusing. Now what happens if I start reducing both the opacity AND the flow? This is where is can start hurting your head.
I like to think of opacity as being the main transparency governor. If I set the opacity to 75% then no part of my stroke will ever be stronger than 75% transparency. Within that 75% range I can decide how transparent each dab of the brush will be from 1 to 100%. So let's say my opacity is set at 75%, even if I set my flow to 100% my stroke will still only be 75% of the original color.
Right now you might be saying, well, that's great, but how is that going to help me with my painting? Look at these four samples. In each one, I scribbled around and around in circle until I could go no darker. As you can see the center of each dot is the same color (75% opacity) but you can see when I used a lower flow rate, I needed more little dabs of paint to get to that color. At 5% flow I was scribbling quite a lot longer than I was at 100% flow. So flow gives you a way to gradu
When it comes to digital art, there is a school of thought that feels that the more digital artwork mimics traditional mediums the better. Unfortunately, anyone who has tried to replicate watercolors knows that a computer tends to fall short when it comes to copying those "happy accidents" that are inherent in watercolor painting. So I say, why try? Instead of slavishly trying to replicate watercolors, this technique takes inspiration from a loose airy style of watercolor painting and incorporates it into something new and a little different.
This illustration started off by scanning in a finished pencil drawing. I sometimes do my final line work in Photoshop using various grainy brushes, but sometimes it just feels good to pick up a pencil and paper.
After I scanned in the drawing, I selected Image/Adjustments/Desaturate to convert the image to black and white. The paper I was using had a slight yellow cast to it and I didn't want that showing up in the final art. Next, I selected Image/Adjustments/Levels. I clicked on the white eyedropper and then clicked on the white of the paper to make paper really white. Next I selected the middle slider under the Input Levels graph and slid it slightly to the right to darken the pencil lines just a bit.
Once the pencil drawing was adjusted and looking right, I moved it to a layer above the background layer. The way I do that is to open the Layers windows and click and drag the background layer down to the "new layer" icon at the bottom of the layer window, it's the icon next to the trash can. This creates a duplicate of the background. Name this new layer, "outlines." Set the blend mode of this new "outlines" Layer to "Multiply" Next I select the background layer and click Select/All and fill the whole background with white. So now my image looks like this...
And my Layers window looks something like this...
Next I create a new layer between the background layer and the outlines layer and name this new layer "colors".
On the new "colors" layer I select the paintbrush tool and using a hard round brush and 100% opacity I start coloring in the picture. I purposely leave gaps here and there to leave bits of white showing between the colors just as if I was painting wet watercolors next to each other. If you aren't seeing the colors, make sure you have the outlines layer blend mode set to "multiply."
Don’t forget you illustration’s end result will be a bound book and thus some of the image in the center of the spread where the binding is is going to get lost. If an item goes into the binding it should also come out the other side. It’s more than a little unnerving to readers when the page seems to swallow things. So it’s a good idea not place anything important (ie. characters, text or objects important to the story) in the center inches of the spread. This makes for better compositions and makes sure your reader doesn’t miss anything important.
If the pages for the book are going to be full bleedFull bleed is a printing term that refers to printing that goes beyond the edge of the sheet after trimming. The bleed is the part of your illustration that extends out from the image cut line and allows the printer that small amount of space to move around paper so no white appears by accident. adding 1/2 an inch bleed all the way around image is a good idea. Don’t put anything important there since it’s going to be cut off but also don’t leave it highly unfinished or blank either.
Sometimes you have to break the rules to show all that’s needed in a scene. Like this dual two-point panoramic shot
or this dramatic warped perspective shot.
When making a story with true to life environments its a good idea to stick to the rules of linear perspective and only break them when it will further the story in some way. Good examples for breaking the rules of perspective are:
To express heightened emotions like fear, anxiety or wonderment.
To show multiple locations or angles not normally scene in true linear perspective.
To add interest to an otherwise uninteresting scene or location.
Painter Tool Tip
Under Edit > Preferences > Brush Tracking is a handy little customization tool. Each time you turn on Painter you should open up this tool and drag your style across your tablet. The Brush Tracking will record the way you in particular use a stylus and adjust your brushes accordingly. When I switch from pencil, to ink, to paint I redo my tracking. It only takes a second and can make a world of different in your artwork.
This concludes the fourth segment of The Making of a Picture Book. Thank you for joining me on this journey and I hope you will join me again for further installments.
I thought it was time for another Photoshop tutorial. This tutorial will show how to color a drawing to give it an Arthur Rackham type feel. Now, before you say it, I know, I'm no Arthur Rackham. I just want to show how to give a drawing that aged sepia tone sort of look that he was known for.
The technique I'm going to use is very similar to the one I showed a while ago with Coloring Line Drawings in Photoshop, but with a few extra steps. So you might want to go back and take at look at that tutorial first if you are a Photoshop newbie.
This image started out as as a pencil drawing that I scanned into Photoshop. You could also start with a pen and ink drawing, charcoal, whatever you want. Below is exactly how it was scanned in, and I don't know if you can see it, but the whole image has a pinkish cast and lots of pencils smudges.
The smudges I'm going to leave, I think they will add to the feeling that I'm going for. But I want to get rid of that pinkish tint to the paper. So I click Image->Adjustments->Desaturate (or SHIFT-CTRL-U) That converts the image to greyscale.
For this technique you need to have the line drawing on a layer above the background layer. The way I do that is to create a copy of the background layer. You can either right click on the background layer and select "duplicate layer..." or you can drag the layer down to the little "new layer" icon right next to the trash bin. Rename this new layer, "Line Drawing". Now, go back to the Background level and select all (CTRL-A) and fill with a solid tan color. Your image won't look any different yet, but your layers window will look like this...
Click again on the "Line Drawing" layer and create a new adjustment layer (the little icon at the bottom of the layer window that looks like a black and white cookie.) We're going to create a "gradient map." Experiment a little with the gradients, you'll find that you can tinker with it in all sorts of ways to get lots of neat effects. You can see that I chose a gradient that goes from dark brown to
When I first started using the computer to create illustrations I primarily used Adobe Illustrator. This paper plate design was the first image in which I used Photoshop. I also used a mouse to create all my work (yep, I did that jungle plate with a mouse.) Wacom tablets were/are expensive, and I thought $400 was a ridiculous amount to pay for one. Oh, did I mention that I'm a cheap skate?
But then a friend of the family, who happened to be a graphic designer came to the house and saw my workspace. And she said, "you idiot, go buy a pen tablet!" I'm sure she said it much more diplomatically than that, but that was the gist. And she was right. If you want to use Photoshop for painting, a mouse will only take you so far. You really need to invest in a tablet. The good news is they have come down considerably in price.
The really difficult part of using a tablet is that you draw in your lap but your brush strokes show up on the monitor. That incongruity takes some getting used to. And honestly, I never found it as natural as drawing with paper and pencil, although I know some artists that don't have a problem. But a couple of years ago I upgraded to a Cintiq. The Cintiq is basically the Cadillac of the Wacom line. It's a monitor with a Wacom tablet built into it, so instead of drawing on a separate tablet you draw directly on the monitor. Sound cool? It is wicked cool, and much more natural feeling to me. I can't tell you how much I love my Cintiq. One of the function buttons was sticking the other day on my precious baby and I was fretting as if one my real children had come down with the flu. What would I do if my poor Cintiq became ill?! Luckily it recovered on it's own. Phew!
Programming the Wacom Function Keys
When I first started using a Wacom tablet I didn't make good use of the available funtion keys. I still had one hand on the keyboard to do things like hit "b" (the hotkey for the brush tool) and "e" for the eraser tool and my all-time favorite "CTRL-ALT-Z" for undo. But I have since started programming my Wacom for the way I work and it has definitely streamlined up my work flow.
Think about the tools that you use most in Photohsop and try bringing that functionality down to the tablet. I spend most of my time switching between the brush tool and the eraser tool. So in the Wacom preference utility, I set the left function keys to "b", "e" and "CTRL-ALT-z". The preference utility can be accessed in Windows by going to "Programs -> Wacom Tablet -> Wacom Tablet Properties" Notice how I can specify that the keys only have this behavior within Photoshop. You can set up different behavior for use in other applications (Illustrator for example)
The other thing that I have found very useful is to reprogram the buttons on the actual Wacom pen. I have set the top one to the left bracket and the bottom one to a right bracket. "[" and "]" are hot keys that are used in conjunction with brush tools. The they will resize the paint
So I was looking this up online and I could find pillow tutorials with a couple of these features but not all three. I took some time to figure it out and now I'm going to show you how I did it!
Just one note, I did it with 1. a regular zipper and 2. a regular zipper foot. It's also put together with materials I had already. So there are other ways to do it, such as with an invisible zipper, but in the end I was really happy with the results.
First of all, the fabric. I had a beautiful end piece of hand printed chintz that I found at the Textile Museum Sale. It's a gorgeous 1920s Scalamandre pictorial print called China Rose, and there was actually just enough to make two large covers, the same size as the existing cushions I had on the couch.
Here's my trick for cutting out matching cushions with a pictorial print. Arrange the two halves of fabric so that the print is aligned then cut out two matching front pieces and two matching back pieces. The front is different from the back on each pillow but the two pillows match. Just a nice little detail.
To make your piping cut narrow strips of fabric on the bias and use it to cover a length of cord. You can buy cord for piping by the yard at fabric stores. You can use ready-made bias tape to cover your cord, the same fabric as your cushion, or a contrasting solid or print fabric. I used an olive green that matched the leaves in the print.
Despite the fact that this is a very nice fabric, it was a little bit thin for pillows. This means that without a lining the pillow wouldn't have a nice smooth luxurious look that does justice to the fabric. So I cut out two more squares of sturdy white cotton fabric for the linings.
Now that you have all that prepared you're ready to put it together.
Posted by Candy Gourlay
This is a quickie tutorial on how to put a podcast (a.k.a. a sound file such as you reading aloud from your book!)
Yes, this could be you!
I've just posted a recording of me reading from Tall Story on my other blog (it's on the sidebar, helpfully titled "Listen to me read an excerpt from Tall Story"). Do let me know what you think.
What you need to create a podcast:
I just finished my latest video shoot and will have a bunch of new free videos coming out very soon. I can’t wait to share them with you. In the meantime here’s a little video tutorial I did a while back about drawing a dog. Have fun. When you are done with your drawing and would like to see it on the fan art page just send me a copy.
For this lesson you will need:
A marker or a pencil
Optional- markers, crayons, or paint to color in you dog.
Though I can’t show you the text I can show you were it is going to go. One of the tricks in illustrating a picture book is the leave space for the text without leaving a gaping whole in your illustration.
When I plan out an story illustration I always have a layer with the text on it in the size the publisher has said it will be. This way I don’t have to guess and hope it will fit in the end. This also goes for book covers. Where the text is going to appear you also want the colors to be low contrastThis means that the value of the colors in a particular area are relatively the same value so either dark with light text or vice versa.
Zooming in for Effect
When illustrating a picture book you don’t always have to have crazy angles for every shot. Take a queue from the film industry and go in for some close ups. If your working on a computer you don’t even have to re-sketch your scene just use a free-transform tool to expand your image. I wouldn’t advise doing this with a painted image in most cases because of pixelationPixelation is when you blow up or expand an image and the pixels, the bits of color information that make up your image, become jagged and much more visible..
Digital Tool Tip
When using the free-transform tool in Painter or Photoshop remember to hold down shift while moving the arrows on the box the tool creates. This will ensure your image scales proportionally.
This concludes the fourth segment of The Making of a Picture Book. Thank you for joining me on this journey and I hope you will join me again for further installments.